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Curriculum for Design Education of Craftspersons

Agarawal, Megha, is a designer turned social-entrepreneur, founder of the organization – ‘Crafting Nuru’. She has a Fine Art background and did her Masters in Design - Visual Communication from IDC IIT Bombay. Her comfortable corporate career was short lived soon after she founded Crafting Nuru with the support of IIM Ahmedabad and started working with the institute as Research Associate on Craft research projects.

Crafting Nuru (www.craftingnuru.com) presently provides craft-design-education consultancy to NGOs and other craft based organizations; as well as is involved in production of handicraft products in Rajasthan. The organization aims to start a chain reaction with Craft-education being instrumental in over-all development of craft-sector and in turn, sustainable development of India. Their ‘design curriculum for artisans’ had been implemented in five artisan-schools in Bikaner by Rangsutra and the schools’ success validates the vision set by Crafting Nuru.

Apart from being a designer, she is an artist proficient in Hindustani classical music, had worked as radio jockey, has keen interest in documentary film making and writing.

August 2012, Craft Revival Trust
Few centuries ago in India, ‘Design Education of Craftspersons’ would not hold much meaning as it holds today. For Craftspersons were already practicing as professional Designers! “Craft” as a creative expression was not so stringently defined to exclude so many other artistic activities which today we separate in names of ‘fine art’, ‘folk art’, ‘design’ and so on – depending either on the product utility or sadly most of the time on basis of the social class of the producer. (Kak, 2002) Apart from these handful fancy labels for creative professionals, there are millions more artisans who are excluded from being called a craftsperson by the narrow definition of ‘crafts’ stone-etched in our govt. policy documents.

As we all know, Design Education is much recent phenomenon in India, which developed following the western model of design needs, subconsciously almost establishing in our minds that India never had a tradition for design, ignoring the fact that the same work was done by the craftspersons in India since the known beginning of Indian civilization. The question here is – how can we get back the respect to these million Indian illiterate craftspersons – bring back their status as that of a designer? The colonial rule and the modern education system has contributed to build a strong wall between a professionally qualified designer and a traditional illiterate poor, rural, ignorant craftsman, which makes it practically as well as rationally difficult for these two groups of people with similar creative professions to stand on the same platform.

It is well established that India has the largest no. of traditional designer – or craftsperson’s population in the world, has both cultural as well as economic importance in the developing or at least in maintaining the well being of the nation. Thus there is definitely a need to put efforts to bring down the great wall between the millions of traditional designers cum producers and the handful of trained designers – which indirectly will mean ensuring social and economic well-being of a major part of population in India.

This could happen only if the system accept few changes towards the craft and design education system. Though it appears to be utopian dream but there has been few proved examples in different parts of world where the policy makers did understand and gave due place to craft in education system. One such example is the Finnish Education System did since 1866 – where craft is combined compulsory subject for all pupils in the National Core Curriculum for Basic Education for fifth to ninth grade. (Pollanen, 2009)

However mere reflection of the concern about it, as it is even present now, is not sufficient. This also requires a ‘new breed of people committed to this task – they need to be trained first’ (Kasturi) The situation is difficult to change till the crafts keep being taught as a negotiable “hobby” subject in schools by the teachers who are themselves a product of a biased colonial education system, trained to protect the strong wall. (Kak, 2002)

There have been numerous efforts by individuals and non-govt. organizations to act on this concern with modest change in system, however there is a clear need to implement the change in curriculum to include craft-design as part of curriculum in schools countrywide – and give chance to this age old traditional profession still followed by millions to be a respectable profession of literates apart from creating new first generation craftspersons just like the first generation designers, doctors, engineers and so on.

Not just in schools, but even the existing design schools needs to revisit their core philosophy of existence. As Prof. Arvind Lodaya1 calls this - a crisis due to not valuing crafts as cultural asset:

When craft dies, it’s not only the artisans and their business that dies. With it dies an entire history, a legacy, a tradition, knowledge. This is where modern design academies have failed it – by their inability to unearth this wealth in a responsible way, and feeding it back into the mainstream as well as the community. Indian design schools, with their received models and concepts of design (rooted in the modernist/Industrial paradigm) have to question their very basis and locate craft at their centre.

This is not a revivalist argument, but it does suggest that the location and practice of “design” needs to be opened to questioning and experimentation rather than being regarded as unproblematic and beholden to industry.

While the problem is complex and has varied facades, it needs to be solved through various mechanisms working on all dimensions independently but simultaneously. This paper narrates the story of one such attempt to break the code of this problem from one of the dimensions through an intervention envisioned to give design trainings to embroiderers, tie-dye and stitching – women artisans – in small villages of Bikaner district in Rajasthan - by Sumita Gose and her organization ‘Rangsutra Crafts Pvt. Ltd.’ – a unique community owned SRC of FabIndia.

I have been closely associated to this project – “Rang-shiksha” since Jan 2011, working as a consultant for the curriculum development for one-year-long course for the new artisan-design schools in different villages.

We are currently running in the 1st year of these schools in 5 villages of Bikaner district. The schools in Lunkaransar, Napasar and Rajasar villages started in August 2011, school in other village started in September and in November in Daily Talai village; after teacher trainings of the local teachers from respective villages through a residential camp at Rangsutra, Bikaner.

“Rang-shiksha”
Starting from the study of various such attempts by other organizations in past – putting them in the right mix and modifying them to suit requirements for the artisans in Bikaner, we worked on developing a design curriculum for Rang-shiksha schools.

Some of the curriculum studied, whose reflections can be seen in the new curriculum are as follows:

  1. Kala Raksha Vidhyalaya, Kutch, Gujrat2

  2. Craft Curriculum from the National Core Curriculum for Basic Education - Finland3

  3. IICD, Jaipur - project proposal4

  4. BCDI, Agartala - project feasibility report5

  5. Dastakar Ranthambore, Sawai Madhopur, Rajasthan6

  6. Moon River, New Delhi in collaboration with AIACA, workshops with Gond Artisans7

  7. UNESCO Vital Traditions: A regional Textile workshop, Vietnam8

  8. ‘Craft management and enterprise development program’ – CDI, Srinagar, J&K9

After study of the above interventions, I along with two dedicated team members from Rangsutra – Anjuman ji and Babita – started the process of understanding the needs and problems faced by women artisans in Bikaner. Anjuman ji has more than 10yrs of experience in community mobilization for various developmental works with Urmool, while Babita is fresh graduate in arts from polytechnic college in Bikaner with expertise in various embroidery, tie-dye and stitching techniques. Three of us as a team tried to understand the requirements of the women artisans in the villages to create a probable solution and implement it in the schools practically.

We started with a broad aim to empower young girls and women who are already practicing some craft (mostly embroidery, or sewing) by giving them design perspectives. The overall goal was to provide education and practical skills that will improve the quality of their lives and their work.

While Anjuman ji and Babita started identifying the villages where we will be setting up the design schools, I started work on formulating curriculum for these. The selection of villages was done on basis of data from surveys conducted by us to find:
  1. number of women who will be willing to and can be convinced to come to school daily for a year – given that stepping out of home for education or work is an unconventional phenomenon in those villages

  2. skills available with the women artisans and the willingness to learn further

  3. employability: considering the kind of work Rangsutra sells, which skills and from which areas it will be easier to give them job orders – after completion of their course


The process for curriculum design started with insights from discussions with Judy Frater, Prof. M.P. Ranjan and Jogi Panghyal, inspiration from other curriculums mentioned above as well as from the primary research work done in few craft clusters in Rajasthan as well as study of NGOs in this sector while doing research work for the research-project ‘Interventions in Craft Sector’ at IIM Ahmedabad with Prof. Ankur Sarin.

I started to frame the course modules with the generic assumption that the two major problems this education needs to solve are that of:
  1. Design up gradation according to trends and market demand

  2. Market linkages

Considering the case with women working with Rangsutra, the market linkages were already in place, however, Rangsutra had to put constant effort for quality check and design inputs. The second assumption was that the Design education will also help in developing confidence in the women which would help them take their own decisions and be aware of their environment & surrounding and be able to respond to it according to the needs. Though later as we practically implemented the course in schools we had to add more independent courses and activities for confidence development, as that came out to be a pre-requirement for us to impart design training.

Objectives of the design curriculum were as follows:
  • To encourage artisans to observe and draw from, their own traditions and others, as part of design process, and, as an integral element of design.

  • To be capable of self-evaluation/critical judgment.

  • To be able to understand, assess and define the different markets.

  • To be capable of information gathering/accessing resources.

  • To be confident in their ability to learn, and practically implement their education.

  • To encourage them to recognize their capability in terms of cost, efficiency and feasibility.

  • To bring ‘aspirational value’ to their products by marketing them with redefined aspirational benchmarks of enhanced sense of well-being or status, rather than commoditizing them.

Who are the Students?10
Women and girls working for Rangsutra – who are already traditional/skilled artisans, thus assuming that participants have certain level of expertise in their respective crafts, mostly involved in embroidery. Each batch is expected to have around 25 students.

For proper understanding of the prospective women students we conducted surveys in the villages and a data bank was created to answer the following questions:
  • Who are these people?

  • What are their earnings?

  • How much dependent are their families on their earning and on their time?

  • What are their aspirations?

  • What is in it (our education) for them? How do they value it?

Who is the Faculty?
We planned to have visiting faculty from design education background (academicians or working professionals with relevant experience from NIFT, NID, IDC etc.) to take short teacher-training modules for 3-7 days and serve as guides to the permanent faculty as and when required.

Permanent faculty is from the village itself that is trained to teach according to the curriculum – someone who has basic level of education and has ability to train the women in design.

Orientation week :
We started the course with an Orientation week. While planning this I remembered a statement said by Kelvin Murray12:

It is a common practice in agriculture to ‘turn the soil’ before planting new seeds.

To help ‘aerate’ the relationship between artisans and designers... during orientation, we aim to create a good rapport with the artisan women and develop their confidence in us. The orientation week aims to make the school, the teachers and the environment accepted by the women.

The activities in the orientation week can roughly be defined as:
  • Introduction

  • Photo session (students’ individual and group with digital cameras)

  • Games (Making environment lively and hitch free – all the instructors of design as well as literacy and numeracy classes must be present during the orientation)

  • Requirement for education – discussion sessions

  • Design discussion sessions

  • Making a class-room collection of craft pieces from their homes

  • Decorating the class room

  • Collaboratively setting disciplines and rules for the classes

Course Summaries:
The course in one year will constitute the following Seven Broad Subjects:
  1. English:

    1. Alphabets, Names of Months, Weeks

    2. Basic Phonetic reading, though which they can read sign-boards, names etc. written in English.

  2. Hindi:

    1. Alphabets – Barakhdi, swar/vyanjan

    2. Words and sentence formation

  3. Spoken Language and confidence training

    1. Speaking Hindi properly: clearly, loudly

    2. Practice to speak in front of a group and other Confidence building activities and exercises

  4. Basic numeracy –

    1. Counting, Numbers – read and write, Basic computation: addition, subtraction, division, multiplication and its implications

  5. General Awareness:

    1. Government system: panchayat, country, state, economics

    2. Health: personal hygiene

    3. Environment – about plantation and cleanliness of surroundings

    4. Saving: benefits of saving, personal account and banking process, motivation for having a personal bank account

    5. Prohibition, Family Planning etc.

  6. Craft Activities:

    1. Stitching

    2. Embroidery

    3. Bandhej or Tie and Dye

  7. Design development:

    1. Color theory: learning from nature, surroundings and traditions

    2. Basic design and Theme based collection development

    3. Market orientation, Costing, Concept

    4. Finishing

    5. Merchandising and Presentation

Assessment:
  1. Student assessment: weekly – out 10

    Through tests and marks on files, final presentation:

    • Positive marks: Quality-finishing (3), class participation (2), presence in class (2), academic performance (3)

    • Negative marks: disturbance (2)


  2. Teacher assessment: weekly – out 10

    Evaluating students’ Progress status through following parameters:

    • Students’ confidence in; Product development

    • Design development

    • Overall personality development

Details of the Design Development course:

  1. Color theory: learning from nature, surroundings and traditions

  2. Basic design and theme based collection development

  3. Market orientation, Costing, Concept

  4. Concept, Communication, Projects

  5. Merchandising and Presentation

Course 1: Color theory: learning from nature, surroundings and traditions

Instruction Materials:
Chart, Drawing book, sketch pen, poster colors

Activities:

  • Master artisans can be invited as advisors to discuss their arts in a professional manner. They will offer practical advice along with traditional - aesthetic expertise.

  • The students study and discuss over the traditional pieces from Rangsutra’s Pattern Catalogue. We emphasize here on how the aesthetics are driven by clients’ history and lifestyles. Thus triggering a discussion on style and technique.

    • Sketching practice – drawings from nature, objects etc.

    • Use these sketches to create their own patterns and motifs in their drawing books – taking inspiration from nature and objects around them – initially only in black and white and later in colour

  • Students should be asked to create colour wheels and painted achromatic, monochromatic and polychromatic schemes, and complementary and analogous combinations. Thus teaching them the colour value. They must be introduced to polarities such as cool-warm, tint-shade, high and low value, bright-dull, by illustrating these contrasts with colour boards. In this process they learn to observe, and see.

  • Later students must give presentation on their work. Many of the students might initially struggle with public speaking but developing confidence over a period of time.

  • Discuss the pattern catalogue again to note its – color combination etc. and discuss the differences and its comparison with what they have created.

  • Each theoretical exercise is to be immediately followed by a short, practical application in embroidery.

  • The students should also be asked to make fabric colour wheels, and stitched a series of small examples for each way to perceive and use colour. They can create traditional designs with monochromatic, natural, and extracted colour schemes.


Assignment: Embroidery on product

  • The women are made to explore perception by arranging fabrics from dark to light and high to low intensity. (The complications of language and culture in this exercise will require developing a relevant design dictionary to communicate to the women.)

  • Women should be encouraged to do innovative patterns to make the work appealing and compensate for lack of colours against their habit of using many colors together.

  • Women should be asked to and helped to give presentations to explain their work. This might be new for most of the class. They should be made to practice that to overcome apprehension, and by the mock jury at the end of the class. This will help them develop their own unique way of presenting.


Course 2: Basic design and Theme based collection development

The session can begin with a review of the USP of each textile tradition. Seeing pieces from Rangsutra’s collection will assist the artisans in viewing traditional work graphically. They should be encouraged to analyze and critique in detail, and explain the choices that artisans (of the samples under discussion) had made in cultural context.

Then, beginning with line, they should be taught how to use elements of design to understand symmetry, asymmetry, balance, pattern and rhythm



    Students should be asked to do daily sketching. This will sharpen their observation skills. They should be asked to bring, say 7 sketches each, before they come for the class.

    In class, they can paint; make collage in paper cutting etc. to understand line, shape and texture.

    Each lesson should be reinforced with an exercise in creating a small embroidered example. The concept of negative and positive space, visual and tactile texture should be introduced.

    Though the exercises they should learn to understand the movement and rhythm in terms of value, placement and contrast, through line, shape, and texture as well as colour.

    Exercises like creating a color palette with say 4-5 colors, of their own, viz. of their favorite recipe, season, festival etc. will enhance their design ability with limited colors. Then they can be asked to use these to make a composition from their sketches.

    Students should be asked to give presentations on their creations as classroom assignments and explain the design thinking behind the work. Frequent presentations will help the students review and comprehend different elements of design, as well as to become comfortable with public speaking.

Course 3: Market orientation, Costing, Concept

The course introduces the importance of the end user in design, and of innovating to fit the client’s taste.

The course can began with the women talking over the kitchen for a day – using familiar analogy to discuss the importance of planning and costing.

A field trip should be arranged to nearby largest city – probably Bikaner in this case. Before going for this trip, the students should be briefed to develop criteria for critique of their experiences. This can include an introduction to costing, materials and the USP of each craft. If possible they should also be taken to shops that sell hand crafted products, like Bandhej, Anokhi, Fabindia. They should study product display and costing as well as quality since many of them would not have had experience of the stores in which their products are sold.

They should be shown magazines like ‘Inside-outside’, ‘Society’ and other interior design magazines to discuss the tastes of their buyers and understand their life-styles. They can be then asked to select one house-hold each and design three different products for these clients.

Course 4: Concept, Communication, Projects

The course can begin with a review of design-work done till now. The students discuss on and critique each other’s design work with perspective of market orientation, costing and concept. They discussed traditions to bring out the concept of “story” or theme which exists in their original work. Discuss on what colour palette they followed and what mood and clientele are their individual products representing.

The professional theme boards should then be studied taking examples from books. These examples should be studied until the students perceive stories related visually. Trends should be discussed.

Instructor should then guide the students to choose a theme from the season that inspired them most. Using Poster color and magazine swatches – theme board needs to be created individually by each student. In small groups and then individually the artisans can re-define the themes in their own local terms.

In the second phase of this course, students should begin to think in terms of products. They should brainstorm about possibilities, and finally short list collections they would like to make. They can create motif banks and layouts. The concept of sampling must be introduced as getting an idea of how the final design might appear. Students should be left free to work in their respective media.

Course 5: Merchandising and Presentation

The class can begin by creatively utilizing the presentation of homework to role play shopkeepers and customers, thus introducing the importance of presentation. During the class, students will learn to edit and to express in non verbal manners.

Brand identity and logos should be introduced. Each student can work on a symbol that could relate to his work, and then a name for his company. Each student can also create her own portfolio.

The second half of the course should focus on display of collections. Display and oral presentation should be practiced several times. The students should be asked to make presentations in the classroom, and finally making an exhibition for the final display of the course. For the final presentation, all students’ family members should be called. This will also serves as an important link to the community, who often don’t know what the students have learnt and can do.

Some Pictures from the schools:
(Photos - Babita)

Students:

  

  



Work done by Students:







Teacher Training in Bikaner:
(Conducted by Babita – Rangshiksha team, Ruchi Tripathi – Rangsutra’s Designer, Sujit Jha – Rangsutra team, Megha Agarawal – Project Consultant)







References

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  • Cabrera V, P. (2.2007). Reflections on design for competitive artisan communities —Towards an approach for the sustainability of local cultures. Artelogi 10 - Käsiteollisuuden Tutkimusseura Ry., Finland.

  • CCI. (2010). Co-Creating, Designers Meet Artisans: Guidelines to interaction.

  • Chandra, S. Gendering English: Sexuality, Gender and the Language of Desire in Western India. 2007.

  • Chatterjee, A. (n.d.). The Indian Craft: Sunrise or Sunset in a Global Market. Craft Revival Trust. College, B. (2008-09). Annual report. Tilonia.

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  • Kasturi, P. B. (n.d.). Transforming the 'Guru-Shishya' Parampara: Changing the way training is planned in craft sector. Ahmedabad, Gujrat, India: NID.

  • Kramrisch, S. (1956). Artist, Patron, and Public in India.

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  • Lodaya, A. (n.d.). The Crisis of Traditional Crafts in India. India: Craft Revival Trust. Page 14 © Megha Agarawal

  • Mathur, N. (2006, August 5). REHWA: Maheshwari Handloom Weavers. Economic and Plolitical Weekly .

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End Note

  1. Lodaya, Arvind.(n.d.) The crisis of traditional crafts in India, Craft Revival Trust

  2. Frater, Judy. (e.d.) Kala Raksha Vidyalaya: An Institute of Design for Traditional Artisans, Craft Revival Trust

  3. Pollanen, Sinikka. 2009 Contextualising Craft: Pedagogical Models for Craft Education, The Author Journal Compilation. NSEAD/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad

  5. 31 Dec 2001, National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad

  6. Patel, Usha Nehru. April 2010 A Directional Study Towards Empowerment: Finding a New Horizon, Craft Revival Trust

  7. Case study from Draft of: Co-creating, Designers Meet Artisans: Guidelines to Interaction, Craft Revival Trust

  8. Case study from Draft of: Co-creating, Designers Meet Artisans: Guidelines to Interaction, Craft Revival Trust

  9. Bhatt, Jatin. Oct-Nov 2008. Innovating New Paradigms of Value in Handicrafts, Craft Revival Trust

  10. Annual Report. 2009 Kala Raksha Vidyalaya, Bhatt, Jatin. Innovating New Paradigms of Value in Handicrafts. Nov 2008, Craft Revival Trust

  11. Gose, Sumita. May 2010. Brief for Rangshiksha Schools, Rangsutra India Pvt. Ltd.

  12. Murray, Kelvin. March 2008. What Price Culture? A Hypothetical about Craft and Design. Craft Revival Trust



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