\

Handloom Weaving Clusters Of Bihar

Bhasin, Jyoti is presently Senior Faculty in the Centre for Retail, Footwear Design and Development Institute, Noida, An M.Sc. (Home Science), with specialization in Textiles and Clothing, from Lady Irwin College, Delhi University with UGC NET qualification she has had teaching experience with JIMS, as a Faculty and Course- in- charge. Her interests lie in studying Indian traditional textiles, and itís blending with modern trends. She has published articles and presented paper at conferences.

October-November 2012, Craft Revival Trust

This article discusses nine weaving clusters of Bihar in terms of the yarn used, count, type of looms, style of weaving etc. Each cluster though existing within similar geographical conditions having similar kind of production capacities, yet produce different products and weaves.

Sigori Cotton Cluster, Patna - Sigori is a small village of Patna district which used to be small concentration of weavers in the vicinity. Presently about 3000 looms chug along producing a variety of cotton dress materials, mainly shirting, dhoti, gamchha ie shoulder scarf etc. The use of Vat colors, plain weaves & various check/ stripe patterns using 32ís to 60ís cotton yarns, characterize Sigoriís handloom offerings.

Biharsharif Cluster. Nalanda- Biharsharif town and its nearby villagers such as Nepura, Malah Bigha etc. houses many looms producing some fine silks as well as cotton dress materials. The weavers procure silk yarns from Gaya, Bhagalpur etc. and produce some fine tussar , mulberry and matka silk fabrics. Cotton dress materials and bed sheets are also made by some weavers using broad width looms of 60Ē width.


Bhauara cotton cluster, Madhubani- Bhauara is a small cluster near Madhubani township. Fine muslins, cotton dress materials, fine dhotis are some of the offerings from Madhubani region to the rest of the world. However the cluster presently has about 300 odd looms producing mainly material sand gamchhas using 4-Ďs to 60ís count cotton yarns.

The cluster is presently being supported with a holistic package of interventions under the Integrated Handloom Development Scheme (IHDS) of Development Commissioner (Handlooms) Govt. of India.

Manpur cluster, Gaya- Manpur, Tekari, Chakand and other villages of the region houses a number of weaver families. Manpur produces not only fine tussar silk but also a large number of gamchhas typically used at most pilgrimages. The weaver families produce what they can sell to traders of Bhagalpur or to the local traders based in Gaya. Some weavers have attempted natural dyed tussar silk fabrics such as stoles, dress materials etc.


Katoria Cluster, Banka- Katoria, Chorbe and Dumwara are some of the important handloom destinations in Banka district of Bihar, which shares its boundary with the state of Jharkhand. However, the area enjoys a unified geo-climatic condition suitable for tussar cocoon rearing and the forests of the region provide ample scope for the same. Building upon this, the region possesses a large population of women who carry out traditional thigh reeling of tussar silk.

Thus Ghhichha, Katia and other types of tussar silk yarns are produced and further woven into Tussar-Ghhichha (TG), Mulberry - Ghhichha (MG) fabrics. The rustic looks and the coarse texture of the fabric is appreciated by fabric experts across the globe. This cluster, which possesses about 400-500 looms, is presently being supported with a holistic package of interventions under the Integrated Handloom Development Scheme (IHDS) of Development Commissioner (Handlooms) Government of India.
Bhagalpur is acknowledged as SILK CITY and is renowned worldwide for its silk production. The silk industry in this city is 200 years old and many generations of silk processing communities exist here that have been producing silk for generations including its well known sericulture, manufacture of silk yarn its weaving into exquisite products. This silk is known as Tussah or Tusser Silk.

Silk weaving is a longstanding customary household industry of Bhagalpur. In order to further develop handloom silk industry in the state of Bihar, the Weavers Service Centre was established in Bhagalpur in the year 1974 by the Ministry of Textiles, Government of India. The Bhagalpur cluster is the second largest silk fabric producing and exporting hub after the Karnataka state. Bhagalpur silk home furnishing made ups are gradually becoming admired in the Overseas markets. However, the Silk saris produced in Bhagalpur are more popular in the domestic market.

Within the Bhagalpur area there are several clusters:

Hussainabad Cluster, Bhagalpur- Hussainabad is a part and parcel of Bhagalpur. The looms being presently used in the cluster are pit looms with single box fly shuttle technique. The use of 4, 6 or 8 pedals to create textural patterns in the fabric and some makeshift dobby of 6-8 plates are in use in the cluster.

The effective width of the fabrics is ranging from 45 to 55 inches. The weavers of the cluster have been doing a lot of design-based production as per the demand using up to 8 pedals for textural patterns. They are adept at handling varieties of silk & the cluster has a reputation for being the key source for matka silk, which has earned brand name for Bhagalpur.

Nathnagar Cluster, Bhalgalpur- Nathnagar is a part of the extended township of Bhagalpur and is well connected with Patna and Kolkata and thereby with the rest part of the country. A large number of households are engaged in weaving activity in the region, some in power looms and some in handlooms. The cluster has a very large number of looms though they remain functional based on the orders received. In any case 300- 400 looms are said to be operative at any given time.

The looms presently used in the cluster are pit looms with single box fly shuttle technique. The weavers do not do the use of jacquards but the use of 4 to 6 pedals to create textural patterns in the fabric exists in the cluster. The weavers of the cluster have been making a variety of silk and cotton fabrics ranging from the famous silk chaddar of Bhagalpur to tussar silk fabrics, dhoti, lungi, gammcha etc. However, the number of cotton looms is more than the silk looms in the cluster.

The various types of yarns being used in not only Nathnagar but also most handloom clusters of Bhagalpur region are as under:

Cotton: 10s, 20s, 32s, 40s, 8/2s, 2/ 10s to 2/80s
Mercerized Cotton: 2/80s to 2/120s
Spun Silk: 2/60 to 2/240
Tussar Silk: 33/37 D
Staple: 2/14 to 2/34
Noil: 2s, 4s, 6s, 7s, 10s, 20s, 30s
Throster (85): 2/20 to 2/30
Matka Noil: 20s, 6s, 10s
Muga Silk: 2/72, 1/60, 1/33 D
Linen: 10, 14, 20, 25, 40, 50, 60

Fancy Yarns such as Acrylic, Wool, Lub-lub, Viscose Flag, Kela Silk, Lurex, Payal

Champa Nagar cluster, Bhalgalpur- , which is a part of the Bhagalpur township, houses about 500 odd looms and these produce a range of silk fabrics. The present product range can be divided into 65% silk dress material, 20-25% silk home furnishings, 15-20% silk saris and cotton fabrics.

The width of the looms is up to 50 inches. Both frame as well as pit looms are being used in the cluster. Use of 4 to 6 pedals to create textural patterns in the fabric is common in the cluster. The weavers are skilled and have a clear understanding of possible variations in weave structures and possible combinations utilizing the resources to the maximum usage. They are ready to accept new design ideas and are open to suggestions and not adamant to just stick to the conventional weaving technique.

They do tie and dye, they try out motifs, patterning, as per yarn innovation they also try out fancy yarns and always work according to the demand.

Kharik Bazaar, Bhalgalpur- Kharik is closely linked to Bhagalpur geographically as well as economically. It is located about 30 kilometers away from Bhagalpur off the NH 31.

A large number of households are engaged in weaving activity in the region, some in power looms and some in handlooms. The cluster has a large number of looms though they remain functional based on the orders received. In any case 300- 400 looms are said to be operative at any given time. The width of the looms is up to 50 inches. Both frame as well as pit looms are being used in the cluster which produces from coarse cotton lungis to fine silk dupattas.

Some of the weavers also produce tussar silk fabrics such as Tussar-Ghichha or Mulberry-Ghichha.



References:

  • www.handloomofbihar.com

  • http://www.india-crafts.com/textile/indian_handlooms/

  • http://www.indianhandloomscluster-dchl.net/



     Share on Facebook


ADDRESS LISTING
NOW available addresses of over 60,000 weavers & craftspeople working in more than 1000 crafts categories across India

Updated Weekly

SUBSCRIBE NOW


ARCHIVE

The Asia Inch Encyclopedia is building a permanent, long-term archive of writings that have enduring cultural, historic and evidentiary value. Read the collected writings of -
Ashoke Chatterjee,
Judy Frater,
Paula Manfredi,
Uzramma,
Carolyn Jongeward,

And others

READ MORE




Bookmark and Share
Sign up
to join the
Asia InCH mailing list

 


PUBLICATIONS & MEDIA

-

These publications and CDís are available only on the CRT Online Shop


CARDS FOR CORRESPONDENCE

-

Rediscover the art of writing with these beautiful and wide ranging correspondence cards.


GAMES & HOBBIES

-

The Ganjifa playing cards, the wire brain teasers and Board Games are all collectibles besides providing hours of fun.

GIFTS

-

Original handcrafted products for someone who has everything.


STATIONARY

-

Original handcrafted products for someone who has everything.