headline in Canada's national newspaper reads: "Artisans drowning in global
monoculture" (Globe and Mail, October 31, p. C16). The article focuses on
the impact of Western commercial products, open markets and mass media on
the decline of artisan activity worldwide. This is not news to India's
artisans who are struggling for survival or who have moved away from
traditional occupations. However, the loss of artisan livelihoods has become
a global as well as a local issue. This is not only an economic problem. The
loss of knowledge and ways of life that are part of an artisan's work and
environment is eroding cultural diversity.
Bunkar Vikas Samiti (UMBVS) is one among many craft development
organizations in India that are confronting the enormous challenges of
establishing sustainable employment within viable craft communities. In a
relatively short period of time, UMBVS has improved the social and economic
status of hand weavers in Rajasthan and has contributed to the survival of
traditional pit loom weaving. I had an opportunity to visit the Urmul
Weavers Centre at Phalodi, Rajasthan, in November 1997. At the time I was
researching community-based initiatives
that support the continuity of hand weaving skills and knowledge in India.
The purpose of my inquiry was to affirm the value of sustaining cultural
diversity, particularly, the value of weaving as a way of knowing and
weaving as a way of living in communities. While seeking information about
innovative education and development projects that benefit hand weavers, I
discovered that the Urmul Weavers Society was exemplary.
Barupal is chief executive of UMBVS and one of five weaver-managers
responsible for running the organization. During my visit, Ram Chandra
described the formation and development of UMBVS in a translated recorded
interview. Beginning as an income generation project in 1987 and evolving
into a successful community-based organization,
the Urmul Weavers Society has helped weavers transform their circumstances
and their perspectives of themselves and others. Ram Chandra said, "It is a
changing, dynamic process. When something demands that you learn, you set
about learning it" (Barupal interview, 1997).
change, loss of traditional livelihoods and unprecedented environmental
degradation are current global realities. More than ever, learning to learn
is a key survival skill. An ability to learn to adapt, "be in transition,"
work together, solve problems, and innovate is increasingly important. In
this paper, I draw from the example of UMBVS to explore how craft
development organizations can create opportunities for artisans to learn new
skills and transform their perspectives. My purpose is to show how new
meanings for craft emerge through this learning process.
precedent in Rajasthan for emphasising learning in development was the Rural
University, also known as the Jawaja Project, which began in 1975 under the
inspired guidance of Ravi Matthai (Gupta, 1992; Matthai, 1985). Generating self-reliance and
mutuality was central to the deep involvement of people in development
activities. The Jawaja Weavers Association emerged through a long process of
learning to establish trust between outsiders and villagers and also to
mobilize the resources of those who wanted to participate in the project.
The Rural University emphasized people learning to help themselves and
others, learning to help their community and other communities. Outside
"experts" were also learning about the experiences and views of the
villagers and they aimed to make themselves dispensable.
The story of
Urmul is a story of learning that has transformed the lives and perspectives
of weavers in a number of villages of West Rajasthan. It is also a story of
outsiders, including myself, who have participated in different ways in the
learning process. The time of my visit to Urmul coincided with the semi-annual meetings
held in each village to discuss whatever issues or problems of weaving
production had occurred in the preceding six months. These meetings were
also a time when the UMBVS managers shared information about new designs,
markets, and initiatives. I was invited to attend several of these meetings.
One afternoon I travelled by jeep with Ram Chandra Barupal, Revata Ram
Panwai, manager of income generation projects, Bhagta Ram, weaving training
master and Kunjan Singh, textile designer employed by Urmul. Kunjan spoke
English and she generously translated parts of conversations and taught me
The village of
Karwa is sixty kilometres east from Phalodi, about an hour and a half jeep
ride on narrow roads through dry land. When we arrived, the Karwa weaving
manager and two elders greeted us. We were told that the meeting would be
delayed until weavers working in the fields returned at the end of the day.
At dusk, when only a few weavers had arrived, the meeting was postponed
until much later in the evening. Ram Chandra suggested this was a good time
for me to put questions to the weavers. I asked, what is different now that
you are weaving for Urmul? One young man said that now he has much more
respect from people in the village. He used to take construction work to
earn money, but now weaving lets him earn money and feel respected at the
same time. An elder expressed the satisfaction of being respected for their
work, in contrast to the sense of desperation that forced them to take
anything in pay. There used to be competition; if someone asked 10 rupees
for a piece another would undercut him by saying his weaving was only 8
rupees. Now there is a fixed price for each piece which everyone knows. "We
are a community now," he said.
For the weavers
of Karwa, self-respect and
a sense of community are central to their transformed perspective. These
qualities emerged slowly as a result of changes in their circumstances after
joining UMBVS. Before UMBVS began training weavers to make new designs and
establishing markets to sell their products, weavers in many villages of the
region had stopped weaving. Many of them had been investing money in yarn,
dyeing the yarn, weaving, and then taking their products to markets.
Sometimes their work would sell, but often they lost their investment and
had to take out loans from money lenders, which resulted in the loss of some
of their belongings. Some weavers had arrangements with merchant- middlemen
in Jodphur, Jaiselmer and Bikaner. The middlemen provided weavers with dyed
yarn, but paid very low wages for the weaving while selling it at a good
Barupal's story reveals the struggle to learn to weave at a time when many
weavers had given up. Ram Chandra came from a village in Jaiselmer district
where the stony rough land was not conducive to farming. He left school
after ninth grade because his family was poor and he saw that he needed to
earn some money. He did physical labour, including work in the salt mines.
His father did not weave, but on occasion Ram Chandra tried to weave on his
great uncle's loom. Then, at sixteen, he decided to learn to weave. His
family did not approve because they wanted him to go back to school. Ram
Chandra worked alone to figure out how to make a warp, set up the loom and
weave. He persisted even though no one supported what he was doing. Weaving
appealed to him and he appreciated the historical and cultural aspect,
knowing his ancestors had also been weavers. He thought weaving was a better
way to earn money than doing tough physical work. Gradually he earned ten to
fifteen rupees for his pattus above the cost of the wool. Later he began
buying wool in bulk and having other weavers make pattus which he sold at
fairs and outside markets.
Nobody in his
village knew how to do the traditional embroidery weave. So Ram Chandra
bought a woven pattu from a fair and over six months taught himself the
Bhojasari technique of inlaid weft. Gradually he became known for his unique
pattus. Since he was able to weave fast and his quality was very good, he
began to earn up to thirty rupees for a pattu while others earned ten to
twelve rupees. However, when his family was in debt, Ram Chandra stopped
weaving to earn more money. He took out a loan to buy seed to sell. He sold
food at hotels and at fairs. He bought sheep and goats, reared them, and
took them to sell in big markets in Delhi. He invested in a fodder machine
and made fodder for cattle. But he didn't make a profit from any of this
work. When the Government of India sponsored a famine relief effort in the
nearby Bikaner district in 1987, Ram Chandra went to work there on a
watershed management project, building a small dam. Whenever he earned some
money he returned to his village and his loom to weave.
the Weavers and Forming a Society
Leaders from the
Urmul Trust, an autonomous organization based in Lunkaransar in the Bikaner
district, had an important role in the foundation of UMBVS. They prepared
the ground for weavers to participate in their own economic and social
development. Sanjay Ghose and Tarun Salwar saw the potential for a good
income generation project in the weaving of pattus using the traditional
Bhojasari and Mhulani embroidery styles of the region. In 1987, they began
looking for weavers who were able to do this technique. At an annual fair
near Pokhran they met weavers who introduced them to other weavers who knew
the traditional embroidery styles.
When people from
the Urmul Trust met Ram Chandra Barupal and saw him weave, they asked him to
come and work for them in Lunkaransar. They offered him a stipend of 450
rupees per month to learn new designs and train other weavers. At the time,
Ram Chandra was earning more than 800 rupees by sitting at his loom. He told
them, "I'll learn here. I've learned myself. Give me a new design and I'll
figure it out myself." When the Urmul Trust persisted in asking him to train
local weavers in Lunkaransar, Ram Chandra said, "No," because there were
weavers in his village that he wanted to train first. He said that after
teaching them for one year to weave and do the embroidery styles, then he
would be ready to train other weavers.
Ram Chandra was
one of five weavers that the Urmul Trust brought together from Jodhpur,
Jaiselmer and Phalodi districts to live in Lunkaransar and learn about
creating and running an organization. The weavers learned the basics of
marketing, accounting and shop keeping. They learned yarn dyeing and
techniques for weaving new embroidery style designs and products designed by
a student from the National Institute of Design. Dastkar, an NGO that helps
bridge the gap between rural artisans and the urban consumers, helped with
marketing advice and support.
In the first
year, fifty local weavers were trained. The Urmul Trust supplied village
weavers with wool and paid them on a piece rate basis for everything they
produced. Dastkar helped the Urmul Trust by arranging exhibitions and
selling the woven products at city bazaars. However, few weavers in the
villages were clearly informed about the Urmul Trust. They thought it was a
rich international organization and they wanted to earn as much money as
possible. The weavers produced in quantity, but their quality suffered and
the Urmul Trust accumulated a large amount of poorly made unsold products.
The Urmul Trust called a meeting of weavers and Sanjay Ghose explained
Urmul's objectives, saying, "You are poor people who have been taken
advantage of. We want to organize you into a group that one day will stand
on it's own" (Barupal interview, 1997).
problems had to be faced. Pattu weaving was traditionally done in wool, but
the market for new woollen products such as cushion covers was seasonal. And
people living in the cities of South India did not want wool furnishings
because even the winter months are not cold. With product and marketing
advice from Dastkar, the decision was made to weave with cotton in order to
reach a broader market and provide a steady income to weavers throughout the
year. Problems with the yarn dyeing also diminished the popularity of
products. Sales stagnated until several weavers were trained at Lunkaransar
in the use of new chemical dyes and the quality of yarn colours improved.
to do better in the market but there was still trouble with quality and with
sending products on time. Urmul Trust could no longer accept poor quality
work. Sanjay Ghose and Tarun Salwar went from village to village, explaining
to weavers that Urmul Trust was a large institution with health and
education programs and it was not imperative for them to support the
weavers. They shut down the weaving production for two months to emphasize
the need to increase the quality of finished work and stop dependence on the
Urmul Trust. Only the very good weavers and the trainers continued weaving
during that time.
In 1989, a
meeting was called at Phalodi to discuss the formation of a weavers'
organization separate from the Urmul Trust. Subsequently, meetings were held
in the villages to encourage weavers to become active in developing the
organization. To instill a sense of ownership for the society, each weaver
was asked to contribute 1000 rupees as capital; profits and losses would be
shared by each member.
Sanjay Ghose, UMBVS "was borne out of a sense of desperation. They had to do
something to get work otherwise they would have been reduced to absolute
penury" (Ghose, 1992). UMBVS was registered formally and an elected
executive committee was comprised of the five weavers who had been working
at Lunkaransar. These leaders went back to Lunkaransar to learn more about
running an organization. Each according to their interests, they learned
about stock keeping, accounting, and marketing.
Soon the UMBVS
leaders wanted to leave Lunkaransar and set up their organization in Phalodi,
a central location for the weaving villages of Jodhpur, Jaiselmer and
Bikaner districts. Sanjay Ghose and TarunSalwar were keen for the weavers to
go on their own, but others at Urmul Trust did not support the idea. Instead
of waiting and possibly not having any support for the idea later, the UMBVS
leaders decided to leave for Phalodi. It turned out that half the weavers
wanted to work in Phalodi and the other half wanted to stay in Lunkaransar.
Some weavers mistrusted the leaders. They believed the leaders would exploit
them, earn all the money, and do nothing for them. To settle the dispute, a
compromise was reached and Urmul Trust sent four people to Phalodi to work
there, including a manager, a designer, and an accountant.
leaders soon realized that the managerial staff sent from Urmul Trust had
high expenses on marketing trips. The Urmul staff stayed in hotels that
suited their higher social background. When costs were totalled the leaders
realized how much profit was needed just to cover these expenses. They
decided to manage without the staff from Urmul. However, some weavers
opposed this idea, continuing to mistrust the leaders and believing that the
presence of the Urmul Trust staff members ensured fairness.
perspective and learning across these differences was integral to the
formation of UMBVS. Despite the resistance of some weavers in the villages,
the leaders persisted. They wanted the freedom to run the organization
themselves. They knew they were being blamed for losses that were due to a
management problem. So they sent the staff from Urmul Trust back to
Lunkaransar. Then the leaders were very strict about their own expenditures
because they wanted to prove UMBVS could make a profit. They lived
spartanly; they took buses, never taxis, and slept outside in inexpensive
tariff hostels. By the end of the first year in Phalodi, UMBVS made a
profit. After covering the Urmul Trust losses of the previous year, the
organization was able to distribute a bonus to the weavers. When they
received a bonus for the first time, the weavers finally believed in UMBVS
and saw that the leaders could manage the organization on their own.
working in a rented house in Phalodi, the weaver-managers were
discriminated against because of caste. UMBVS needed their own building,
especially for training more weavers. A meeting was called and the weavers
decided to contribute to the purchase of land. UMBVS also applied for and
received international funding from Action Aid and Save the Children's Fund.
In 1994, the construction of Urmul Phalodi Weavers Centre was completed.
UMBVS began to train more weavers by providing a three month training
session at the Weavers Centre. Since 1997, women who want to join UMBVS and
learn to weave have taken part in a women's weaving training programme.
inception, the vision of UMBVS has been "To establish a society free of
inequalities and oppression." Their mission is "To organize the target group
and help them to actively participate in all aspects of their development by
making them more aware of their rights; to keep traditional craft alive by
upgrading their skills." The goals are to free weavers from exploitation by
traders and middlemen, provide alternative marketing support and regular
remunerative employment, and to bring about social and economic development,
including the preservation of art and culture in a professionally managed
environment (UMBVS unpublished report, 1997).
In pursuit of
these aims village weavers, UMBVS managers, and outside experts have
encountered many challenges, and learning experiences have transformed
perspectives of individuals and communities. According to Ram Chandra
Barupal, the most important achievement of UMBVS has been to help weavers
break out of the constraints of the caste system. Weavers belong to the
poorest sub- section of the villages, primarily backward castes of the
Meghwal community. As they have become united and formed a strong identity,
they have been able to fight caste oppression. Over time, there has been a
significant psychological change, a feeling of relief and self-respect. Ram
Chandra said, "It is a change to your psyche that you are not looked down
upon so much anymore. It is no longer only the higher castes that are
worthy" (Barupal interview, 1997).
UMBVS has helped weavers' break the constraints of poverty.
As members of
UMBVS, weavers are paid at the end of each month by a production manager who
picks up finished work and pays on a piece rate basis according to the size
and detail of each design. Earlier, weavers worked for the well-off higher
caste people. They took loans from them, and were indebted to them. Now,
very few weavers are in debt, but if needed they can take out a loan from
the society. Women also can have savings and get loans. By earning a decent
living through weaving, the weavers' social and economic status in the
villages has improved. They are viewed differently by other villagers and
their voices are heard more often.
their woven products to stores in major Indian cities and also for export.
However, marketing continues to present major challenges. UMBVS must
continue to make high quality products, adapt materials and colours to
market demands, and fill orders on time. The organization has established
reliable contacts but still needs to maintain, assess, and expand marketing
contacts. To meet the demands of the export markets UMBVS has to be very
specialized and meet deadlines. At the same time, they take into account
that weavers are farming during the four months of agricultural season. In
1997, the Urmul managers tackled the legalities and paperwork for government
permission to receive international funds directly rather than indirectly
through other organizations. They also learned about forming a company and
getting an export license in order to bypass the middlemen in international
commitment of time and energy is required in the operation of UMBVS to bring
the benefits of the organization to as many people in the villages as
possible. The vision and determination of the UMBVS managers has been vital
to the growth of the organization. By listening to the needs and concerns of
villagers, UMBVS has helped weavers feel that it is their organization and
their wishes being carried out. However, the UMBVS leaders are continually
trying to involve more weavers in the community development process. Some
weavers were initially more concerned about their own welfare. Competition
and suspicion made it difficult to establish trust and cooperation. However,
discussions at annual meetings, awareness camps and exposure visits have
helped villagers see different points of view.
When UMBVS was
formally registered in January 1991, there were seventy weavers from six
villages. In 1997, membership had grown to one hundred and fifty weavers
from thirteen villages in three districts of West Rajasthan. Weaving is the
central activity of the organization but other activities include a Women's
Development Programme, an Integrated Rural Development Programme, and the
implementation of an extensive education programme in conjunction with the
Rajasthan Government. The scope of UMBVS continues to expand and people from
more villages want to become members of the weavers' society. However, UMBVS
managers do not want the organization to become too big and they train only
five new weavers a year.
already become so big that there is too much work for everyone to do,
especially the managers and staff. Along with success have come problems of
high work-load and
poor communication within the organization. For example, Ram Chandra is
often away on business and he is less available for staff to ask questions
and consult with. UMBVS has a dedicated team of workers and strong
organization of weavers at the village level. However, they recognize a need
to spend more time in the villages and to establish a communication team
within the organization. There is also the question of how to bring other
people into leadership roles and share the knowledge and responsibility for
running the organization.
beginning, the concerns of UMBVS were to organize the weavers to become
involved in their own economic and social development. They trained weavers
and learned about new designs, products, and access to markets. Although
this task continues to be central, the growth of UMBVS has brought new
challenges, in particular, learning about organizational development. For
three months in 1997, Ram Chandra attended a leadership development training
session on the management ofnon-profit organizations.
Subsequently, UMBVS held a four day staff workshop to examine where they
were going as an organization. They worked with a list of needs that had
been produced by members of the Gram VikasSamitis in each of the thirteen
villages where Urmul has development programmes. They discussed and
clarified the vision and mission of UMBVS. And they examined the strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities and threats faced by the organization. Using the
list of needs recorded in the villages, and keeping in mind the
organization's vision and mission, the staff created a plan for development
activities during the following three years. They evaluated existing
programmes and decided to eliminate those which no longer fit with their
mission. And they planned new programmes to tackle the compelling problems
that had been raised by the villagers. After the workshop, a document was
produced as a record of their exploration and planning.
The process by
which staff examined the UMBVS vision, mission, goals and strategies
demonstrates one of the many strengths identified in their organizational analysis--UMBVS is
a learning organization. This approach is also reflected in their efforts to
create a community of craftspeople who are aware of their rights and
participate their own development. The ongoing development of a learning
organization, however, involves "embedding learning within the actual work
processes, at individual, team and organizational/strategic levels....The
ultimate goal is organizational transformation through a learning agenda" (Laiken,
1997, p. 3).
Craft Development Organizations
How can a craft
organization be strengthened by paying more attention to the learning
dimensions of its activities? How can a craft organization become a
while doing? Following are eight characteristics described in the IUCN/IDRC
Tools and Training Series on Reflective Institutions (Dudley & Imbach,
uncertainties and ignorance and draws from experience of all participants to
increase understanding and effectiveness of the organization;
assumptions behind plans of action and develops knowledge that informs the
next course of action;
for constructive exchange of views and experiences thereby fostering
interdisciplinary and holistic perspectives;
and micro perspectives--integrating an
overview of complex systems with awareness of local issues and requirements
documents and continually revises an explicit framework for action that
includes, (a) understanding what we think is happening, (b) vision of how we
think the world should be, (c) ideas for action, and (d) lessons we learned
from past experience;
all beneficiaries and participants to take control in defining and directing
their own projects thereby motivating communication and exchange of
information based on local knowledge and analysis;
and learns from mistakes to gain insight into how failures inform the
reflective learning process and generate more appropriate paths of action;
and maintains times and spaces for reflection to facilitate the process of
organizational learning--designating an
individual or team to be responsible for this process.
implications of embracing these guidelines of reflection and action. The
learning dimensions of activities become explicit when attention is given to
who is learning what, what helps or hinders learning, and what are the
consequences of learning. More inclusive perspectives can arise when
assumptions about learning, education and development are examined. For
example, reflective and participatory learning processes go beyond skills
local knowledge is validated through the contribution and sharing of
participants' experiences, self-reliance and
mutuality develops. People with different backgrounds, assumptions,
expectations, values and intentions come together in creating a viable craft
organization. Learning to value and respect differences in perspective is
vital to learning to work together. When people feel secure enough to trust
each other, they can take the risk of trying out new approaches, attitudes
and points of view.
implication of becoming a reflective organization is that the monitoring and
evaluation of activities can "permeate the structure, philosophy and
practices of the institution" (Dudley & Imbach, 1997, p. 2.). The action-reflection cycle
(plan, implement, monitor, evaluate) provides a framework for evaluation.
After planned actions are implemented, reflection serves to analyze the
action, review the knowledge gained, and reexamine assumptions. This is the
basis for ongoing assessment of what is working, what's not, what desirable
results have occurred, what actions have or have not been effective.
purpose for strengthening craft organizations as reflective organizations is
to increase their capacity to discover appropriate and effective ways to
make craft economically viable within an increasingly technological and
industrialized environment. The task is not only to contribute to the
economic security of artisans but also to ensure a continued connection with
the cultural knowledge that gives their work vitality and inspiration.
It is vital to
explore pathways for creating sustainable communities and livelihoods. This
is especially true in the context of economic and cultural globalization,
accompanied by increasing environmental destruction and social upheaval.
Reflective craft organizations have a purpose within the global transition
to a sustainable, just and peaceful future. They have a significant role in
preserving cultural diversity through encouraging reflective and
participatory processes that help artisans adapt to and find meaning in
their changing environments and circumstances.
Meanings for Craft
never static. Meanings arise and change in particular contexts as
individuals and communities ascribe value to their experiences. Sacred and
secular have long been interwoven in the fabric of daily lives, and the
world of the artisan's work is imbued with meaning. Technical inventions in
weaving and other crafts are often recognized. What is less evident is the
imaginative activity of the craftsperson inspired by familiarity with ways
of making things with particular materials. MirceaEliade (1978) writes, "The
imagination discovers unsuspected analogies among different levels of the
real; tools and objects are laden with countless symbolisms, the world of work--the micro
universe that absorbs the artisan's attention for long hours--becomes a
mysterious and sacred centre, rich in meanings" (pp. 34-35).
What will it
mean to learn to weave in India at the dawn of a new millennium? Will
weavers be valued and respected, or consigned to poverty and a struggle for
survival? Will weaving mean learning how to continue living in a particular
landscape and community while creating knowledge that is urgently needed
during a time of global ecological crisis? New meanings for craft emerge
when: (a) the craftsperson is valued; (b) economic survival of the
craftsperson is ensured; (c) knowledge and skills of the craftsperson are
valued, utilized and extended; (d) opportunities are provided for learning
from others' different points of view; (e) respect, trust and mutuality
replace competition, self-interest
organizations have a critical role to play in developing new products and
markets for artisans' work. They also have a role in creating conditions for
learning through enabling a flow of information, ideas and concerns between
leaders and craftspeople. Craft organizations can foster ongoing
questioning, reflection, analysis and evaluation of actions. New leaders and
innovators can emerge when people are given opportunities to learn about
learning, managing, designing and problem solving. By keeping written
records of individual and collective learning processes craft organizations
can document their development and provide a record for others to learn from
For those of us
interested in craft development, it is important to know the stories of
learning taking place in the lives of individuals, communities and
organizations. These stories contain information and insight into the
dynamic processes of learning that underlie efforts to improve the
well-being of artisans and their
communities. Stories of learning also reveal the obstacles inherent in the
changing of attitudes, values and actions. However, stories of learning are
not frequently documented. Experiences of participants in craft
organizations usually are not explicitly analyzed and recorded. Craft
organizations will benefit from documenting and communicating their stories.
The sharing of stories can lead to greater understanding of the challenges
and insights that emerge in the work of craft development.
into a thriving community organization by building upon traditional craft
knowledge in West Rajasthan and establishing markets for hand woven
products. They continue to address the needs of weavers and help to create
conditions for sustainable social and economic development. The story of
Urmul sheds light on the dynamics of learning that transforms perspectives
of craftspeople and shapes the creation of new meanings for craft. By
emphasizing learning while doing, craft organizations can foster
participation and ongoing processes of reflection, action and evaluation.
Craft is rich in
experience and meaning embedded in traditional and changing ways of life.
Craft organizations can continue to open doors of possibilities for
craftspeople to adapt to challenges and take part in shaping their lives,
their communities and their future. New meanings for craft are linked with
questions of survival. And questions of survival are being confronted
simultaneously on every scale, from individual and community to cultural and
global. In this context, the emergence of new meanings for craft has
significance within the global search for sustainable livelihoods and
communities. New meanings for craft extend beyond the personal and local to
shape understandings across regions and nations.
Chandra. Interview by C. Jongeward, translation by Ardash Kumar, tape
recording. November, 16, 1997. Phalodi, Rajasthan.
Dudley, E. and Imbach,
A. (1997) Reflective Institutions. In IUCN/IDRC International Assessment
Approach to Assessing Progress Toward Sustainability - Tools and Training
History of Religious Ideas, Volume 1. Chicago,
ILL: University of Chicago Press.
Urmul Experiment. In
Report of the National Meet of the Crafts Council of India. New Delhi.
Learning from Jawaja. In
Report of the National Meet of the Crafts Council of India. New Delhi.
of Organizational Learning. In
Conference Proceedings, Canadian Association for the Study of Adult
Education. St. John's, Newfoundland.
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and Singh, S. 1995. India's
Artisans: A Status Report. New
Delhi: Society for Rural, Urban and Tribal Initiatives (SRUTI).
Interview by C. Jongeward, tape recording. November, 8, 1997. Phalodi,
(1998, October 31). Artisans
Drowning in Global Monoculture. The
Globe and Mail, p. C16.
Bunkar Vikas Samiti.
1997. Unpublished report, photocopy. Phalodi, India.
was published in Maker
and Meaning: Craft and Society, Proceedings of the Seminar
January 1999, Tamil Nadu, India, by Madras Craft Foundation. Paper presented
at the conference in Chennai, India, "Maker and Meaning: Craft and Society,"
January 26-28, 1999
assistance was provided by the International Development Research Centre,
Canada, and the Madras Craft Foundation, India.
The paper is
based on research in India supported by a fellowship from the Shastri Indo-
Canadian Institute in 1997.